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En Russie, la révolte under-gronde

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Nuria Fatykhova est née à Navoï, en Ouzbékistan. Elle a immigré avec sa famille en Russie et vécu plusieurs années en province de Tscheljabinsk. Ses études de philosophie et de sciences culturelles ont amené Nuria à Berlin et Tübingen en Allemagne.Aujourd'hui, Nuria a 29 ans et vit à Moscou. Elle est doctorante en philosophie, mais gagne sa vie en publiant des articles économiques dans divers médias russes et allemands. Elle est végétarienne et porte des bottes en caoutchouc jaune. Chez elle, Nuria est en train de rénover sa chambre. Un peu nostalgique, elle ne sait pas encore quels morceaux de vieille tapisserie elle va garder.

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Face à face | Publié le 19.04.2012 Les Russes souhaitent le changement. Le mouvement "Pour des élections honnêtes" a été le grand oublié en mars dernier. Alors que Vladimir Poutine orchestre son come-back, les activistes s'organisent pour conquérir la liberté d'expression et une vie démocratique loin de la corruption. à l'image de Nuria, jeune journaliste russe, ils souhaitent former une opposition forte avec un vrai programme.

Europa : Quelle est l'origine des mouvements de protestation en Russie ?

Nuria Fatykhova :

Selon Lev Goudkov, un politologue du centre de recherches Levada à Moscou, le sentiment d'indignation existe depuis déjà trois ans. Tout a commencé avec la grève des mineurs en province. Aujourd'hui, la révolte s'est étendue aux grandes villes telles que Moscou, Saint-Pétersbourg, Perm ou Nijni Novgorod. Contrairement aux actions précédentes, quelque chose a changé. En décembre 2011, les médias parlaient de "manifestation".

Qu'est-ce qui a provoqué ces manifestations ?

N.F. :

En novembre, la Douma, le parlement russe, n'a même pas fait l'effort de cacher la falsification des votes lors des élections législatives. Je me souviens bien des nouvelles diffusées sur la chaîne de télé Vesti 24. Le présentateur du journal avait été lui-même surpris en déclarant qu'une région avait été remportée par Russie Unie, le parti de Vladimir Poutine, à raison de 143 % des voix !

Ensuite, le blogueur Alexeï Navalni – critiqué pour ses injonctions nationalistes – a appelé à manifester pour contester le résultat des élections. La nouvelle s'est vite répandue. Au lendemain des élections, 5 000 personnes se sont rassemblées spontanément dans le centre de Moscou. Les manifestants ont protesté sans obtenir d'autorisation officielle. Ni une, ni deux, les services de sécurité ont répondu par la violence. Le 6 décembre, une nouvelle manifestation a été réprimée. Cet effet boule de neige a mené Sergeï Parkhomenko, rédacteur en chef du magazine Vokrug Sveta (Autour du monde), et les citoyens russes à organiser, le 10 décembre, une grande manifestation sur la place Bolotnaya à Moscou.

Et quel rôle ont joué les réseaux sociaux dans tout ça ?

N.F. :

Il y a bien une règle que je suis. Si je fais confiance à un ami, je vais lire cet article moi aussi. La manière dont les gens font confiance aux médias est similaire. À l'époque, on partageait des nouvelles au marché ou au bazar. On correspondait par écrit. Facebook fonctionne comme un marché virtuel. Beaucoup de choses sont liées à nos amis proches. Si un ami en qui j'ai confiance a partagé un article, je vais le lire aussi. Aujourd'hui, les personnes des classes moyennes ont besoin d'informations objectives. Ils ne supportent plus la télévision et vont donc chercher des informations à travers les réseaux sociaux.

Pourquoi est-ce majoritairement les gens de la classe moyenne qui ont manifesté ?

NF :

La classe moyenne est très instable en Russie. Ce sont des gens qui parlent plusieurs langues et sont bien éduqués en général. Mais personne ne s'intéresse à leur sort. Tu peux perdre ton travail d'un coup. Donc les gens sont mécontents et ils vont manifester contre le gouvernement. Ces vingt dernières années, chacun a été reclus dans sa bulle.

„ Les Russes des classes moyennes ne supportent plus la télévision et vont donc s'informer à travers les réseaux sociaux”

Comment as-tu rejoint le mouvement de révolte ?

NF :

Si je pense aux manifestations, je ressens une certaine euphorie encore aujourd'hui parce que c'est une vertu démocratique que de se rassembler et de prononcer sa propre opinion. En Russie, les gens semblaient jusqu'ici plongés dans l'inertie. Sans espoir ! Et tout d'un coup, j'ai vu sur Facebook toutes les plaintes contre les arrestations arbitraires lors des manifestations. Les gens ont eu envie de se rassembler. Au début, j'étais très curieuse. Je voulais aller voir ces gens, en vrai ! Le 10 décembre, je suis allée manifester pour une autre raison. Dans ce pays, il est difficile de lutter seul contre le système.
Notre groupe de travail organise régulièrement des meetings pour les manifestants. Je travaille à la section Créativité et soutien direct. Nous nous rencontrons à chaque fois dans un bar qui s'appelle Zavtra (Demain). Tu vois, tout est lié symboliquement. Nous distribuons ces tissus à chaque fois. C'est un signe de liberté, de propreté et de solidarité.

L'Église orthodoxe connaît un renouveau chez les jeunes. Quelle influence a-t-elle sur le comportement des électeurs ?

NF :

C'est le cœur du problème. Il y a vingt ans, nous avons acquis la liberté de culte. Sous l'Union soviétique, aller à l'église et faire la prière étaient des pratiques interdites par le pouvoir. Maintenant, les gens veulent profiter de ces libertés.
La question de l'identité en Russie pose problème. Pour beaucoup de gens, l'Église offre la possibilité de se différencier des autres mais la vocation religieuse se mélange avec la ferveur politique. Sans hésiter, le patriarche de l'Église orthodoxe recommande à ses fidèles de voter pour Poutine.

Qu'est-ce que signifie la « stabilité » selon Poutine ?

NF :

Et en Russie ?! Nous n'avons jamais eu autant d'actes terroristes que ces dix dernières années. En 2011, la plupart des jeunes russes rêvaient de devenir fonctionnaires. Une secrétaire à Gazprom1 touche un salaire de 80 000 roubles par mois. Ça fait plus de 2 000 euros, c'est énorme ! Forcément, dans ces conditions, les électeurs apprécient Poutine.

Le gouvernement a reproché aux manifestants d'être mal organisés, de ne pas partager une ligne politique commune et de ne pas pouvoir montrer un leader charismatique. Comment réagis-tu à ces attaques ?

NF :

J'aime bien croire que nous ne sommes plus les victimes d'une propagande, d'une illusion, d'un désamour. Chaque leader peut d'ailleurs être très dangereux. On peut le voir en Géorgie avec le président Saakachvili. Mais surtout, et c'est important, je pense qu'il faut changer le fonctionnement politique au lieu de chercher une alternative à Poutine.

Votre groupe de travail pourrait-il devenir un parti politique ?

NF :

On peut dire que nous sommes en train de fonder un parti ! Un parti qui n'est ni de gauche, ni de droite, mais neutre, tels les observateurs des dernières élections. Nous avons aussi besoin des médias alternatifs pour nous faire connaître.
En ce moment, il y a Telekanal Dozhd et REN TV qui diffusent des émissions sur le câble. La chaîne publique Russie1 est horrible car elle vend du rêve à outrance et montre des choses stupides, comme les bonnes récoltes des agriculteurs...
Et Poutine n'a participé à aucun débat télévisé avant les élections. Il a juste envoyé des hommes de seconde main. Pendant le scrutin en mars, le candidat Mikhaïl Prokhorov, un entrepreneur oligarque arrivé troisième, a donné l'espoir pour cette Russie ; notre Russie qui a désormais besoin d'être libérée du joug totalitaire.

1. Gazprom est la première entreprise russe et le premier exportateur de gaz au monde. Le gouvernement russe est actionnaire à 50 %.

Chronologie Vladimir Poutine

1975 >

Poutine sort diplômé de la faculté de droit de Leningrad, devient maître de judo et intègre le KGB (services de renseignement russes).

2000 >

Poutine succède à Boris Eltsine à la présidence russe. Il est réélu en 2004 à 71 % des suffrages, alors que ses opposants dénoncent déjà sa mainmise sur les médias.

2007 >

« La marche du désaccord » réunit des dizaines de milliers d’opposants dans plusieurs villes de Russie, donnant lieu à des centaines d’arrestations. Poutine est désigné personnalité de l’année par le Time magazine.

2011 >

Le rapport indépendant Poutine-Corruption souligne l’enrichissement du chef d’État et sa proximité avec les milliardaires russes. Selon l’ONG Transparency International, la Russie serait l’un des 40 pays les plus corrompus du monde.

2012 >

Après l’intérim assuré par son complice Medvedev (2008-2012), Poutine est réélu président au premier tour avec 63,3% des voix. De nombreuses manifestations d’opposants sont réprimées. Les observateurs internationaux dénoncent des bourrages d’urne.

Katrin Herms, Moscou Russie