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Creative CommonsMassimo Valiani
Articles | Publié le 16.02.2012 Ce dossier sur la gouvernance du Net aborde des aspects peu séduisants comme des protocoles internet, des réseaux informatiques ou des normes ouvertes. Attendez ! Ne partez pas tout de suite en criant au geek, au nerd, au nolife et autres anonymous. Car meme si vous ne parlez pas couramment HTML ou PHP, vous utilisez ces langages au quotidien pour surfer sur l'Internet. Alors ne laissons pas ces questions éthiques entre les mains des geeks !

Revenons d'abord à une réalité concrète. Si l'on compare l'Internet à n'importe quel espace public, où l'internaute serait un badaud qui se promène, on devrait pouvoir naviguer sur le Web comme on se déplace dans la rue. Pouvoir consulter des sites comme on entre dans un bar, un magasin, une mairie ou une association. Il appartient ensuite à la liberté de chacun d'y aller ou non.
Pour respecter cette liberté individuelle, les fournisseurs d’accès à Internet doivent garantir à tous les internautes-badauds un accès sans restriction, sans surveiller les données, sans modifier les sites visités et sans favoriser un site au détriment d'un autre. Voilà quatre des principes fondamentaux de la neutralité du Net. Or, on est loin du compte...
Dans ces pages, nous vous parlions déjà de   la philosophie open source , et des débats qui animent les défenseurs d'un Internet libre contre les logiques commerciales et propriétaires. Concernant la neutralité du Web, la place du politique et du législateur, et par conséquent du citoyen, est tout aussi prépondérante.

Le principe de neutralité repose sur la séparation entre les fonctions de transport et de traitement des informations. En d'autres termes, lorsque notre badaud prend un taxi, le chauffeur ne s'intéresse qu'à sa destination et non à ce qu'il transporte dans ses poches ou dans son sac. L'Internet repose sur les notions d'échange gratuit et de production collaborative qui ont permis de faire évoluer le réseau depuis sa création. En ce sens, le réseau est neutre puisqu'il se limite à transporter les informations sans les modifier et permet donc à l'ensemble des utilisateurs d'y accéder librement et de développer de nouveaux services.

À quand l'Acta russe ?

Le caractère global et transfrontalier de l'Internet se prête difficilement à l'établissement de régulations juridiques efficaces. Le risque est d'aboutir à une fragmentation de l'Internet en plusieurs réseaux nationaux et centralisés, capables alors de maîtriser à la fois les infrastructures et l'offre de services et de contenus, ce qui remettrait en cause le principe de neutralité sur lequel repose l'architecture de l'Internet. Les tentatives de contrôle existent et sont nombreuses. Au nom de la lutte contre la fraude (téléchargement illégal, cybercriminalité, pédo-pornographie, etc), les gouvernements débordent d'idées pour surveiller les internautes et contraindre les libertés de circulation.
Hadopi et Loppsi en France, Sopa et Pipa aux États-Unis, Ipred en Europe...

À partir de 2012, c'est désormais Acta (pour Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement ou Accord commercial anti-contrefaçon) qui va dicter la surveillance du Net à une échelle globale. L'accord Acta est un traité international concernant les droits de propriété intellectuelle et des brevets, avec un champ d’action qui s’étend des médicaments générijuridique que des pays peuvent rejoindre volontairement, et à créer un organisme de gouvernance hors des institutions internationales déjà existantes.

Le 26 janvier 2012, la signature de ce traité par l'UE conduisait à de fortes manifestations dans toute l'Europe. Ce jour-là, Kader Arif, son rapporteur au Parlement européen , démissionnait, dénonçant la mascarade du processus ayant abouti à la ratification de l’accord définitif : « non association de la société civile, manque de transparence depuis le début des négociations, reports successifs de la signature du texte sans qu’aucune explication ne soit donnée, mise à l’écart des revendications du Parlement Européen. »1 Cet accord a été « négocié secrètement de 2007 à 2010 par un petit "club" de 39 pays (dont les 27 de l'Union européenne, les États-Unis, le Japon, etc.), plutôt que débattu démocratiquement », selon la Quadrature du Net . Pour cette organisation française de défense des droits et libertés des citoyens sur l'Internet, « l'Acta donnera aux industries de la musique et du cinéma une arme forçant les fournisseurs d'accès à faire la police de leurs réseaux et des activités de leurs utilisateurs. »

Tel un Flamby dans l'assiette

Désormais les autorités de régulation de l'Internet doivent faire face à l'effet Flamby. Imaginons qu'un site web soit un flamby dans une assiette, son pot est l'hébergeur et le flan est son contenu, avec un coulis de caramel illégal. Pour censurer ces contenus sensibles, le FBI devra tirer la languette et enlever le pot-hébergeur. Le flan va alors se répandre dans l'assiette, car tous les internautes peuvent librement copier et reproduire le contenu, y compris caramélisé. Dégustez maintenant le contenu de ce dossier, en prenant bien soin de répandre ses touches les plus caramélisées. Régalez-vous !

1. Acta : une mascarade à laquelle je ne participerai pas, 26 janvier 2012.

Emmanuel Lemoine, Nantes France