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Parfumeuse indépendante, Mona Di Orio a été initiée par Edmond Roudnitska, un des plus grands parfumeurs compositeurs du XXe siècle. Avant de fonder sa maison éponyme en 2004, avec son collaborateur néerlandais Jeroen Oude Sogtoen, Mona di Orio a laissé son empreinte dans l'œnologie, la botanique, ou encore la gastronomie.

Tous droits reservéDessin par Laura Fumey
Articles | Publié le 23.02.2012 Lorsqu’elle n’est pas enfermée dans son laboratoire niçois, Mona di Orio cavale entre son bureau à Amsterdam, les salons de parfumerie de niche à Florence ou des ateliers d’olfaction à Varsovie. Des magasins spécialisés commercialisent ses créations en Europe. Mais avant d’arriver en rayon, ses parfums font un long voyage mental. Pour tenter de comprendre ce qu’est le travail d’un Nez, retraçons le parcours d'une créatrice européenne et indépendante.

Europa : Vos capacités olfactives existent-elles depuis toujours ?

Mona di Orio : Tout le monde a un nez dont il peut se servir. C’est surtout une question de sensibilité. J’ai toujours été sensible à l’olfaction depuis toute petite. Mes premiers souvenirs olfactifs remontent à l’age de 5 ou 6 ans. J’ai eu une éducation à l’ancienne auprès de ma grand-mère. J’ai toujours aimé des odeurs un peu spéciales. Lorsque j’accompagnais ma grand-mère qui allait arroser ses fleurs, j’adorais l’odeur de la terre mouillée. C’était pour moi d’une beauté hallucinante. Après je me suis rendue compte que les autres enfants n’avaient pas les mêmes goûts. Mais je n’ai jamais eu peur des odeurs animales. J’aime sentir la bouse de vache ou le crottin de cheval. Ce n’est pas banal, dans notre société si aseptisée, où on va jusqu’à parfumer le papier toilette !
Comment s’exerce-t-on à devenir Nez ?

M.dO. : C’est un apprentissage très long et très laborieux. Comme pour la musique, il faut d’abord apprendre toutes les notes et travailler ses gammes. Le Nez va faire son apprentissage olfactif en découvrant la famille des herbes, des bois, des fleurs, etc. Par exemple, parmi les hespéridés, il faut savoir reconnaître la bergamote du citron, les différentes provenances d’orange de Guinée, du Brésil… Ensuite, on apprend vraiment à disséquer les huiles essentielles pour savoir reconnaître chaque molécule qui les compose, et leurs propriétés, leur essence, leur diffusion…
Dans un parfum, on apprend à identifier d’abord la note de tête, la plus volatile, plus légère, puis la note de cœur qui est plus épaisse, florale, plus épicée, et enfin les notes de fond qui sont les produits animaux, les corps cristallisés, des résines. La note de fond va fixer le parfum, elle peut apparaître au bout de plusieurs heures voire quelques jours.
Quel est votre processus de fabrication d’un parfum ?

M.dO. : Le parfum, c’est avant tout une construction mentale. Les gens pensent souvent que je suis dans mon laboratoire avec des éprouvettes et des pipettes, devant ma balance avec mes coupelles et que je mets trois gouttes de ci, deux gouttes de ça… Mais en général, ça sent pas bon quand on fait ça ! Quand je compose, je pars d’abord d’une projection mentale. C’est-à-dire, je peux d’abord sentir dans ma tête. Comme le musicien, qui n’a pas besoin de jouer la note pour savoir comment elle va sonner. Quand je me dis « citron », je le sens. Ensuite c’est un long travail d’ajustement. Et je vais considérer que c’est fini lorsque ce que je sens sur la mouillette ressemble à ce que j’ai dans la tête.
Comment pense-t-on un parfum ?

M.dO. : Comme je ne travaille pas pour une grande maison comme Dior ou Armani, je laisse libre cours à mon imagination. Je pars d’une feuille blanche, et tout est prétexte à création, un livre, une peinture, une musique, une rencontre, un voyage. Pour donner vie à un parfum, je souhaite raconter une histoire.
Par exemple, je voulais faire un parfum avec de la vanille naturelle. Tout le monde utilise la vanille, mais je n’avais pas envie de faire quelque chose de trop sucré, qui sente la barbe à papa ! L’éthylvanilline, la vanille synthétique qu’on retrouve dans l’alimentation, coûte environ 15 €/kg. J’utilise de l’absolu de vanille de Madagascar, plutôt aux alentours de 1 600 €/kg. Alors je voulais trouver une légitimité autour de cette vanille, un fil conducteur. Et j’ai visité un vieux navire exposé à Amsterdam, qui rapportait de nombreuses épices de Madagascar. La coque de ce bateau était faite d’un bois imputrescible, le bois de gaïac également utilisé en parfumerie. Il s’arrêtait à La Réunion, d’où il ramenait du rhum. Sur le bateau, les marins mangeaient des oranges contre le scorbut, et des clous de girofles comme médicaments. Et puis, il s’arrêtait aux Comores pour charger des caisses d’ylang-ylang. Dans ma tête, j’imaginais tous ces ingrédients et petit à petit, j’ai composé mes notes et ma formule s’est construite comme ça.

« Quand je compose, je pars d’abord d’une projection mentale. [...] Ensuite, c’est un long travail d’ajustement.  »

Le vocabulaire du parfum et des odeurs est souvent emprunté à celui de la musique.

M.dO. : Depuis la nuit des temps, les premiers philosophes privilégiaient les sens comme la vue ou l’ouïe. Les arts nobles ont toujours été la peinture, la lecture, la musique, et non l’odorat ni le goût, considérés comme des sens primaires. Ce qui fait qu’aujourd’hui pour décrire une odeur, on a un vocabulaire très pauvre. On est obligé d’aller chercher des mots dans la musique, dans la peinture pour décrire ce que l’on sent. Alors qu'il aurait été si simple d’inventer des mots. Le bureau où l’on range toutes les essences naturelles ou synthétiques s’appelle un « orgue ». Un mot que l’on utilise moins maintenant, mais les mouillettes s’appelaient autrefois des « touches » de parfum. Charles Baudelaire utilise un vocabulaire très riche pour en parler. Aujourd’hui encore, c’est à tomber par terre. Quand je relis ses poèmes, je sens littéralement. C’est ce qu’on appelle la synesthésie, le fait d’associer plusieurs sens à la fois. C’est un des premiers à en avoir parlé.
Selon vous, existe-t-il des odeurs universelles, qui vont sembler agréables ou dégoûtantes à tout le monde ?

M.dO. : Non, je ne pense pas. Les Asiatiques utilisent énormément le durian, par exemple, un fruit qui parfume leur alimentation. Pour moi, ça sent la banane en putréfaction. À la base, on grandit dans des environnements olfactifs très différents, rien qu’entre la ville et la campagne. Mais les goûts ont tendance à s’uniformiser. Par exemple, dans plusieurs études, la vanille apparaît comme l’odeur la plus agréable dans le monde entier. Ce n’est pas étonnant, car la vanille est l'arôme le plus utilisé dans les compléments alimentaires pour bébés. Depuis notre plus tendre enfance, nous sommes conditionnés à ingérer de la vanille. Avec le lait maternel en poudre, on en retrouve en Inde, en Chine ou en Europe. Ce qui fait que d’instinct, comme l’odorat est relié à notre mémoire, une pulsion nous accroche aux parfums vanillés.
Les grandes marques de parfum communiquent une certaine image du parfum au grand public. Comment défendre votre vision alternative ?

M.dO. : Nous n’avons pas beaucoup de moyens. Les grandes marques consacrent un budget énorme pour acheter de la publicité dans les grands magazines, bien plus qu'aux parfumeurs. C’est très rare qu’un parfum de niche puisse avoir des articles ou des pages de pub. Ces cinq dernières années, il y a eu une explosion des blogs autour du parfum sur Internet. Ça a beaucoup aidé. Maintenant il y a des salons de la parfumerie de niche à Florence ou Milan. De plus en plus de magasins ouvrent pour proposer des parfums plus alternatifs, parce qu’ils en ont marre du système de la grande distribution et des parfums qui sentent tous la lessive. Cela nécessite une passion, il faut savoir en parler. C’est assez spécifique à la France. Dans les autres pays européens, il n’y a pas cette suprématie des grands groupes.
Pourtant, la France n’est-elle pas LE pays du parfum ?

M.dO. : Il paraît… mais c’est uniquement lié à l’histoire. Aujourd’hui les trois plus grosses usines de parfum sont américaines et suisses. Ce sont des groupes qui sont rattachés à l’agroalimentaire, à la pétrochimie. On fait plus d’argent en parfumant la lessive ou en créant des arômes de synthèse. En France, il y a une petite élite dans le parfum, mais il faut encore dépoussiérer. Ils sont très attachés à Chanel, Guerlain, Dior.
Le rapport au parfum d’art est-il différent dans les autres pays ?

M.dO. : Oui, et ce n’est pas un hasard si les salons spécialisés ont lieu en Italie, ou si le mouvement Slow food vient de là-bas. C’est aussi là où j’ai la plus grosse diffusion. Les Italiens ont un amour du bon produit. Quand ils achètent du fromage, ils vont chez le fromager. Quand ils veulent de la saucisse, ils vont chez le charcutier. Ils ont besoin d’avoir un rapport humain, de parler, d’être conseillés… et pour les parfums c’est pareil. Il n’y a pas trop de grandes enseignes encore. Ils aiment bien acheter des parfums qui ne sentent pas comme tout le monde.
Les Hollandais sont un peu à la traîne. Avec mon associé, nous avons un bureau à Amsterdam. Dans les pays du Nord, ça commence tout doucement. En Scandinavie, ce n’est pas dans leur culture non plus. Alors que dans le Sud, les Italiens, les Grecs, les Arabes, ça marche mieux. C’est très méditerranéen.
Les Américains aiment bien les parfums uniformisés, sans surprise. Que ce soit la note de tête, de cœur, ou de fond, il faut que ça sente du début à la fin pareil… C’est comme si on rencontrait quelqu’un et qu’en cinq minutes on avait fait le tour de la personne.
Finalement, l’odorat est-il notre sens oublié ?

M.dO. : Malheureusement, je crois que oui. Si on demande aux gens spontanément le sens qu’ils ne voudraient pas perdre, ils répondront d’abord la vue, l’ouïe, mais l’odorat arrivera en dernier. Le nez a toujours été dans l’ombre. Le parfum était initialement réservé au domaine sacré. D’ailleurs l’origine du mot parfum, vient de « per fumare » car à la base on brûlait des résines, des plantes. Aujourd’hui, c’est le sens le plus abstrait. Avec Internet ou la télévision, on peut facilement écouter ou voir, mais on ne peut pas sentir. Pour moi, ce n’est pas du tout le dernier des sens. Le nez rythme nos journées. Je rêverais de prêcher la parole d’olfaction à travers le monde : « Ouvrez votre nez ! »

Emmanuel Lemoine, Nantes France