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ETA : des négociations à la reddition

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Articles | Publié le 02.02.2012 Janvier 1982 Euskadi ta Askatasuna ("Pays basque et liberté"), voilà la signification des trois lettres de ETA, organisation armée qui lutte pour l'indépendance basque depuis sa création (clandestine), en 1959. Et en ce début d'année 1982, le conflit basque connait un tournant.

Le deuxième gouvernement de la transition démocratique en Espagne, dirigé par Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, propose l'amnistie aux combattants de l'ETA, emprisonnés ou pourchassés, en contrepartie de l'abandon de la violence. Le président du gouvernement central est convaincu que « le problème du terrorisme n'est pas seulement, comme on le dit régulièrement, un problème d’État, mais un problème majeur qui menace la réalité même de l’État ».
C'est l'amorce des premières négociations entre les deux parties, l'ETA et l’État espagnol. L'offre de rémission sème la zizanie dans une mouvance indépendantiste basque déjà troublée par le statut accordé à la Communauté autonome du Pays basque (Euskadi) en décembre 1977 et la tenue des premières élections locales dans la région en mars 1980. « Oui, sans réserves, ni arrière-pensées, l'autonomie (...) Mais non, certainement pas une approche légère de l'autonomie qui signifie la dissolution d'une patrie commune forgée par l'histoire », explique également Calvo-Sotelo1. L'effet de cette double stratégie politique – autonomie et amnistie – est net. L'ETA se scinde définitivement en deux, la branche appelée ''politico-militaire'' s'auto-dissout et rejoint le parti Euskadiko Ezkerra (''Gauche basque''). La branche ''militaire'', qui garde le nom d'ETA, continue, elle, la lutte armée.

30 ans après

Trois hommes cagoulés de blanc et vêtus de noir, un drapeau basque en arrière-plan, une table ornée de la hache entourée d'un serpent, le symbole de l'ETA. « ETA a décidé l'arrêt définitif de son activité armée. ETA lance un appel aux gouvernements d'Espagne et de France pour ouvrir un processus de dialogue direct qui aura comme objectif la résolution du conflit et, en conséquence, le dépassement de la confrontation armée », indiquent-ils dans un communiqué, avant d'ajouter, en ce jeudi 20 octobre 2011 : « à travers cette déclaration historique, ETA montre son engagement clair, ferme et définitif ».
L'organisation a donc mis un "point final au cauchemar"2 qui a entraîné la mort de 864 personnes en 43 ans de terrorisme, principalement en Espagne. Cette reddition est moins le résultat d'un processus de maturation que la conséquence d'un affaiblissement progressif. Depuis l'été 2009, l'ETA n'a plus effectué un seul attentat en France ou en Espagne. Sur les 900 membres que compterait l'organisation, plus de 750 seraient en prison. Enfin, lors des élections locales de mai 2010, la nouvelle coalition indépendantiste de gauche Bildu ("réunir" en basque) est devenue la deuxième force du Pays basque, avec l'appui des anciens de Batasuna, considérée comme la vitrine politique de l'ETA. Selon le directeur de l'hebdomadaire Cambio 16, Gorka Landaburu, « le politique a gagné sur le militaire »3.

1. Discours d'investiture, 18 février 1981.
2. Punto final a la pesadilla, El País du 21 octobre 2011.
3. ''Le politique a gagné sur le militaire'', l'Humanité du 25 octobre 2011.

Thibault Dumas, Paris France